A primer on energy efficiency for municipal water and wastewater utilities

This primer is concerned with energy use and efficiency of network-based water supply and wastewater treatment in urban areas. It focuses on the supply side of the municipal water cycle, including the extraction, treatment, and distribution of water, and collection and treatment of wastewater—activities which are directly managed by water and wastewater utilities (WWUs). Demand-side issues of the municipal water cycle, including water-use efficiency and water conservation, are referred to where linkages to energy efficiency (EE) are critical, but are not discussed in detail.