This study examines the expected mitigation of greenhouse gases (GHG) and black carbon (BC) emissions associated to the transition from traditional biomass to clean fuels and clean woodburning cookstoves (CCS) in the Mexican residential sector for the period 2014-2030. We developed a spatial-explicit model at a county-level to understand the GHG trade-offs associated to different spatial-temporal CCS and clean fuels dissemination strategies. A business as usual (BAU) and three alternative scenarios with different targets for CCS and LPG dissemination were constructed.

The tropical cyclone Dineo made landfall over southern Mozambique on 15 February 2017. It weakened to a remnant low on 17 February, which hit Botswana on the same day and triggered heavy rainfall that resulted in flooding over the country. This study assesses the performance of the National Centers for Environmental Prediction Global Forecast System (GFS) and the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) models in forecasting the locations and intensity of the tropical cyclone and its remnant low, the associated cloud cover and rainfall over Botswana.

Nioghalvfjerdsfjorden is a major outlet glacier in Northeast-Greenland. Although earlier studies showed that the floating part near the grounding line thinned by 30% between 1999 and 2014, the temporal ice loss evolution, its relation to external forcing and the implications for the grounded ice sheet remain largely unclear. By combining observations of surface features, ice thickness and bedrock data, we find that the ice shelf mass balance has been out of equilibrium since 2001, with large variations of the thinning rates on annual/multiannual time scales.

A simple, low-cost solar water purifier (SWP) for rural households, which does not require electricity or waste precious water has been developed. The SWP consists of four tubular solar water heaters attached to a manifold. Non-potable water is filled in the SWP after filtering with four-layered cotton cloth and heated in the stagnation mode by solar energy to make it potable. The cost of the SWP is around Rs 2500–3000 (~US$ 40–50) and is so simple that any small rural workshop can fabricate it. In large-scale production it is envisaged that the cost can come down to Rs 1500. 

Although natural terrestrial ecosystems have sequestered ~25% of anthropogenic CO2 emissions, the long-term sustainability of this key ecosystem service is under question. Forests have traditionally been viewed as robust carbon (C) sinks; however, extreme heat-waves, drought and wildfire have increased tree mortality, particularly in widespread semi-arid regions, which account for ~41% of Earth's land surface.

Multiple studies have attempted to identify the association between multivitamin/mineral (MVM) supplementation and cardiovascular disease (CVD) outcomes, but the benefits remain controversial. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of the associations between MVM supplementation and various CVD outcomes, including coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke.

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The mode and tempo of extinctions and extirpations after the first contact phase of human settlements is a widely debated topic. As the last major landmass to be settled by humans, New Zealand offers a unique lens through which to study interactions of people and biota. By analyzing ancient DNA from more than 5,000 nondiagnostic and fragmented bones from 38 subfossil assemblages, we describe species and patterns that have been missed by morphological approaches.

The human gut microbiome has been associated with many health factors but variability between studies limits exploration of effects between them. Gut microbiota profiles are available for >2700 members of the deeply phenotyped TwinsUK cohort, providing a uniform platform for such comparisons. Here, we present gut microbiota association analyses for 38 common diseases and 51 medications within the cohort.

Models of human migration provide powerful tools to forecast the flow of migrants, measure the impact of a policy, determine the cost of physical and political frictions and more. Here, we analyse the migration of individuals from and to cities in the US, finding that city to city migration follows scaling laws, so that the city size is a significant factor in determining whether, or not, an individual decides to migrate and the city size of both the origin and destination play key roles in the selection of the destination.

An estimated 32 million women and girls of reproductive age living in emergency situations, all of whom require sexual and reproductive health (SRH) information and services. This systematic review assessed the effect of SRH interventions, including the Minimum Initial Service Package (MISP) on a range of health outcomes from the onset of emergencies.

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