Forests in California have changed dramatically during the 20th century. Shifts in forest structure including densification, declines in large trees and tree basal area have altered the function, productivity, and resilience of modern day forests. Attributing these changes to specific drivers is increasingly important for effective management of healthy and productive forests.

To provide a picture of hydrological impact of climate change across different climatic zones in Europe, this study considers eight river basins: Tagus in Iberian Peninsula; Emån and Lule in Scandinavia; Rhine, Danube and Teteriv in Central and Eastern Europe; Tay on the island of Great Britain and Northern Dvina in North-Eastern Europe.

Original Source

This paper presents future climate and runoff projections for the South Asia region under the RCP8.5 scenario with climate change informed by 42 CMIP5 GCMs. Runoff is projected for 0.5° grids using hydrological models with future climate inputs obtained by empirically scaling the historical climate series.

Original Source

Biological soil crusts (biocrusts) are predicted to be sensitive to the increased temperature and altered precipitation associated with climate change. We assessed the effects of these factors on soil carbon dioxide (CO2) balance in biocrusted soils using a sequence of manipulations over a 9-year period. We warmed biocrusted soils by 2 and, later, by 4 ◦C to better capture updated forecasts of future temperature at a site on the Colorado Plateau, USA.

Human-induced environmental and climate change are widely blamed for causing rapid global biodiversity loss, but direct estimation of the proportion of biodiversity lost at local or regional scales are still infrequent. This prevents us from quantifying the main and interactive effects of anthropogenic environmental and climate change on species loss.

This study examines the expected mitigation of greenhouse gases (GHG) and black carbon (BC) emissions associated to the transition from traditional biomass to clean fuels and clean woodburning cookstoves (CCS) in the Mexican residential sector for the period 2014-2030. We developed a spatial-explicit model at a county-level to understand the GHG trade-offs associated to different spatial-temporal CCS and clean fuels dissemination strategies. A business as usual (BAU) and three alternative scenarios with different targets for CCS and LPG dissemination were constructed.

The tropical cyclone Dineo made landfall over southern Mozambique on 15 February 2017. It weakened to a remnant low on 17 February, which hit Botswana on the same day and triggered heavy rainfall that resulted in flooding over the country. This study assesses the performance of the National Centers for Environmental Prediction Global Forecast System (GFS) and the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) models in forecasting the locations and intensity of the tropical cyclone and its remnant low, the associated cloud cover and rainfall over Botswana.

Nioghalvfjerdsfjorden is a major outlet glacier in Northeast-Greenland. Although earlier studies showed that the floating part near the grounding line thinned by 30% between 1999 and 2014, the temporal ice loss evolution, its relation to external forcing and the implications for the grounded ice sheet remain largely unclear. By combining observations of surface features, ice thickness and bedrock data, we find that the ice shelf mass balance has been out of equilibrium since 2001, with large variations of the thinning rates on annual/multiannual time scales.

A simple, low-cost solar water purifier (SWP) for rural households, which does not require electricity or waste precious water has been developed. The SWP consists of four tubular solar water heaters attached to a manifold. Non-potable water is filled in the SWP after filtering with four-layered cotton cloth and heated in the stagnation mode by solar energy to make it potable. The cost of the SWP is around Rs 2500–3000 (~US$ 40–50) and is so simple that any small rural workshop can fabricate it. In large-scale production it is envisaged that the cost can come down to Rs 1500. 

Although natural terrestrial ecosystems have sequestered ~25% of anthropogenic CO2 emissions, the long-term sustainability of this key ecosystem service is under question. Forests have traditionally been viewed as robust carbon (C) sinks; however, extreme heat-waves, drought and wildfire have increased tree mortality, particularly in widespread semi-arid regions, which account for ~41% of Earth's land surface.

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